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解析The Attributive Clause

英语组   方芳

 

定语从句是高中学生必须掌握的重要语法之一,在历年高考中,它是必考的语法。例如今年安徽高考卷的单项选择题就考查了学生对此语法的掌握。下面让我们一起来探索它的用法。

  在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句,称为定语从句。

  被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。定语从句须放在先行词之后,它具有形容词性质。

  定语从句一般由关系词引导。关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种.

  关系代词:who ,whom , that ,which ,whose, as。

  关系副词: when, why, where

      指人 who(主语、宾语),whom(宾语),

        that(主语、宾语), whose(定语)   

      指物that(主语、宾语),which(主语、宾语)  whose(定语)

      where (地点状语)

      when (时间状语)

      why (原因状语)

  

注:标红色字体由于有图示,不好处理,所以加进下面一个文本框所示,请参照来编辑!

 

 

                        指人 who(主语、宾语),whom(宾语),that(主语、宾语), whose(定语)

                        指物that(主语、宾语),which(主语、宾语)  whose(定语)

where (地点状语)

                  when (时间状语)

                  why (原因状语)

 

关系

代词

关系

副词

文本框: 定语从句的引导语

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

定语从句分为二种:限制性定语从句(The Restrictive Clause )和非限制性定语从句(The Non-Restrictive Clause).

  一、限制性定语从句(The Restrictive Clause )

  定语从句是由两个简单分句构成的。如:

  简单句1:Children like to read books.

  简单句2:Books have wonderful pictures.

  第一步: 找出先行词。 先行词在哪个句子,哪个句子就是主句,相应的另个句子就是从句。

  第二步:在从句中找出代表先行词的那个词,分析该词在从句中的成分并划掉,然后用关系词替换。如:

  Children like to read books.  Books have wonderful pictures.

  Children like to read books  that / which have wonderful pictures.(此句为先行词,划线部分为定语从句)

  (一).关系代词引导的定语从句

  1. 在从句中,代表先行词的那个词指人,在从名中做主语,用Who, that 引导。

  (1).I don’t like the people. They smoke a lot.

     I don’t like the people that / who smoke a lot.

  (2).The friend was not hungry. He came to supper last night.

     The friend who/ that came to supper last night was not hungry.

  2.在从句中,代表先行词的那个词指人,在从句中做宾语,用Who,Whom, that 引导,且可以省略。

  (1).Do you know Tom?   You met him last week.

           Do you know Tom (that/who/whom/\ ) you met last week?

  (2).The boy is hiding behind the tree. You are looking for him.

           The boy ( that/who/whom/\ )you are looking for is hiding behind the tree.

  3. 在从句中,代表先行词的那个词指物,在从句中做主语,用that,which引导。

  (1).He prefers the cheese. It comes from his parent’s farm。

     He prefers the cheese that / which comes from his parent’s farm.

  (2).This is the shop. it sells books.

        This is the shop that / which sells books.

  4. 在从句中,代表先行词的那个词指物,在从句中做宾语,用that,which 引导,且可以省略。

  (1).The eggs were not fresh. I bought them yesterday.

           The eggs (that/which/\) I bought were not fresh.

  (2).The noodles were delicious. You cooked them.

           The noodles(that/which/\) you cooked were delicious.

  5.在从句中,代表先行词的那个词指人或指物做定语,用whose引导。

  (1).The teacher praised the student. His English is the best in our class.

           The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class.

  (2).This is the book. Its cover is red.

           This is the book whose cover is red.

  特殊情况:在以下情况中, 一般用that而不用which。

  1.当先行词是不定代词时,如All ,few, some, none,little,much,  every, something, anything, everything, nothing 等。

  I am sure she has something .You can borrow it.

  I am sure she has something (that/\) you can borrow.

  2.当先行词被the only, the very, the last,the same, little, few, no, any等修饰时。

  (1).This is the last place. We visited it last week.

           This is the last place (that /\) We visited last week.

  (2).That white flower is the only one  (that) I really like.

           This is the very book (that) I want to find.

  3.当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。

  (1).This is the best film. I have ever seen it.

           This is the best film  (that /\)I have ever seen.

  (2).This is the first school. It is opened to the blind.

           This is the first school (that ) is opened to the blind.

  4.当先行词既指人又指物时。

  we talk about the things and persons. we remembered them at school.

  we talk about the things and persons (that /\)we remembered at school.

  5.当句前有who或者which时,为避免重复,用that

  (1).who is the man?  He is speaking at the meeting.

           who is the man(that )is speaking at the meeting?

  (2).which books do you like best?  They are on the table.

           which books do you like best (that )are on the table.

  有时定语从句可以用介词+关系代词引导,指人用介词+whom, 指物用介词+which,仅此两种。

  1.This is the scientist. we talked about him.

           This is the scientist that/who/whom/\ we talked about .

           This is the scientist about whom we talked. (或把about介词调到从句前)

  2.The city is far away. she lives in the city.

           The city  (that/which/\) she lives in is far away.

           The city in which she lives is far away.(或把介词in调到从句前)

  3.This is the hospital.  I was born in it.

           This is the hospital(that/which/\) I  was born in.

           This is the hospital in which I was born .(或把介词in调到从句前)

  注意在固定动词短语中介词不能提前,

  1.They are the children. we looked after them last year.

           They are the children that/who/whom/\ we looked after  last year.(look after 是固定短语,不宜拆开)

  2.This is the day. we are looking forward to it.

           This is the day (that/which/\)we are looking forward to.(look forward to 为固定短语,不宜拆开)

  (二).关系副词引导的定语从句

  如果代表先行词的词在从句中做状语,表时间的用When(=on which,in which,etc.) 表原因的用why(=for which), 表地点的用where(=at which,in which,etc.)。

  (一)表示原因:

  1.This is the reason.  I was late .(for it) (此句代表先行词reason的for it在从句中做状语)

           This is the reason why I was late

 This is the reason (that/which/\) I was late for .(或保留for)

           This is the reason for which I was late.(或把for调到从句前)

  2.This is the reason. He gave it to me for his absence from the meeting.

           This is the reason (that/which/\) he gave to me for his absence  from the meeting. (从上二句看,在从句中代表先行词 reason.的it担任gave的宾语,故不能用副词why引导)

  (二)表示地点:

  1.This is the factory. We worked in it /(there).

           This is the factory in which/where we worked (此句代表先行词factory的in it 或there 做从句的状语)

  2.This is the factory. We visited it last week.

           This is the factory(that/which).We visited last week.(但此句代表先行词factory的it做从句visited的宾语,故用关系代词。)

  (三)表示时间:

  1.We will never forget the days. We live then/on the days together

           We will never forget the days(on which/when)We live together (此句中代表先行词the days的then /on the days 在从句中做状语)

  2.We will never forget the days(which/that)We spent them together (此句中代表先行词the days的them在从句中做宾语,故用关系代词)

  比较下面几个句子:

           1.We came to a river. in front of it was a house.(中间是句号,所以后句不是从句)

           2.We came to a river , in front of which was a house.(此句中间是逗号,所以为定语从句)

           3.They are all students. most of them come from abroad.(同上)

           4.They are all students ,most of whom come from abroad.(同上)

           5.The Chinese team has won 16 gold medal. 12 of them were won by women.(同上)

           6.The Chinese team has won 16 gold medal, 12 of which were won by women.(同上)

  定语从句分为限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句。

  以上为限制性定语从句,主句和从句的关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。

  Do you know the professor who is speaking at the meeting?

  Where is the book which I bought this morning?

  I was the only person in my office who was invited.

  二、非限制性定语从句(Non-restrictive clause)

  非限制性定语从句,从句是附带说明的信息,和主句关系不密切,去掉从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能用that引导。且所有引导词不能省略。

  This letter is from his parents, who are working in Tibet.

  English is an important subject, which every students should study well.

  The building, in front of which sat a boy, was a school.

  As 引导的非限制性定语从句:

  区别1:As 引导的非限制性定语从句,主句和从句的语义一致,是大家早就知道的,而which引导的非限制性定语从句,主句和从句语义相悖,是没有预料到的。

  As is known to all, Taiwan is part of China.

  He told a lie again , which made his teacher angry.

  例子:

  This is the house (which/ that) we bought last month.

  这是我们上个月买的那幢房子.

  The house , which we bought last month, is very nice.

  这个房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。

  As is known to everyone, the moon travels round the earth .

  The moon travels round the earth,  as/which is known to everyone

  The moon , As is known to everyone, travels round the earth .

  共性:as和 which都是关系代词,可以引导非限制性定语从句,用来指代整个主句。

  区别2:位置不同。 as 引导的非限制性定语从句,既可以在主句前,又可以在主句后,有时还可以放在主句中。而which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。通常用以下的句型:as is known to us all , as is said ,as is reported, as is announced, as we all know , as is often the case.

  As is known to everyone, the moon travels round the earth .

  The moon travels round the earth,  as/which is known to everyone

  The moon , As is known to everyone, travels round the earth .

  the way 后面的定语从句的关系词。

  The way 充当 先行词时,如果在从句中代替它的词做主语或者宾语时,用that , which ,仅当做宾语时可省略。如果在从句中代替它的词做状语,关系词用in which , that 或省略。

  1.The way to solve the problem proves useful.  I thought of it .

           The way(that/which/\)I thought of to solve the problem proves useful.(在从句中担任thought of的宾语)

  2.This is the way. It can solve the problem.

           This is the way that/which can solve the problem.(从句中担任主语)

  3.I don't like the way . You solve the problem the way

  I don't like the way  (In which , that /\) you solve the problem.(从句中担任状语)

  So.....as, the same ....as , such....as 。这里的as是关系代词, 且不能省This is the same tool( that/\ )I used last week.(我使用的是上周同一个工具)

  This is the same tool as I used last week.(我使用的是与上周同一类工具)。

  He is such a good teacher as we all love.

  He is such a good teacher that we all love him.(但这里that引导是结果状语从句)

  It is as interesting a story as we like.

  It is so interesting a story that we like it.(但这里that引导是结果状语从句)

  请注意比较以上几个句子的异同。

  通过以上分析,希望同学们在学习中认真体会,力求达到熟练掌握定语从句的用法。

(赵建民老师编审)

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